Reports & Resources
Electric vehicle (EV) research in Vermont is rapidly evolving to match the speed of vehicle and technology innovations. Several recent reports on EVs in Vermont are highlighted below, including information on EV interactions with utility infrastructure and how public entities can support increased public charging stations. Please contact us if you are aware of materials which should be added to this listing.
State Incentive Electric Vehicle Sales Dashboards
Explore interactive dashboards reporting the performance of the State of Vermont’s electric vehicle incentive programs.
State of Vermont EV Incentive Program Recipient Survey Report
On behalf of the Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTrans), VEIC developed and fielded survey research to understand the motivations, experiences, and demographics of Vermonters who received the state’s incentive for new plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) purchases between the launch of the program in December 2019 and January 2022.
This report describes the research method and summarizes key findings from the research. It includes two appendices: Appendix A includes the survey instrument and Appendix B contains detailed survey response data for all questions.
The majority of respondents indicated State of Vermont incentives were an extremely important factor in their decision to purchase an EV and they were satisfied with the process of applying for and receiving the incentive. The survey included additional questions related to dealership experience, charging and travel behavior.
Vermont Public Utility Commission Electric Vehicle Investigation of EV Fees and Tariffs
This report provides research and recommendations related to five issues the Vermont Legislature requested the PUC further investigate in the 2019 transportation bill. These issues included:
- Fees - potential EV fees for transportation infrastructure collected in lieu of motor fuel taxes on gasoline and diesel purchases.
- Tariff Design - Potential time-of-day or off-peak rates established by electric utilities to take advantage of lower cost electricity and minimize any adverse effects on the grid.
- Reporting - Whether there should be regular reporting from electric utilities on their EV programs.
- Incremental Revenue and Costs - Information on the amount of additional revenue and other financial benefits EVs may contribute to electric utilities, as well as potential costs associated with grid readiness for EV integration and other EV-related activities.
- Net metering - How to address the use of net metering energy and net metering energy credits for owners of electric vehicle charging equipment.
The report is the product of a PUC investigation that consisted of a series of written filings and workshops. Participants included representatives of State agencies, electric utilities, environmental advocates, charging networks, and other members of the public and private sectors.
Vermont Public Utility Commission Electric Vehicle Acceleration Report
This report describes ways to promote the ownership and use of electric vehicles in Vermont. The report sets forth extensive recommendations for actions to be taken by State government, electric utilities, and third-party suppliers and installers of EV charging equipment to accelerate the transition to electric transportation. Recommendations include creating State incentives for the purchase of EVs and encouraging electric utilities to develop new rate structures that make Vermont an economically welcoming place for both EV drivers and charging station operators.
The report is the product of a nine-month investigation that consisted of a series of written filings and all-day workshops. Participants included representatives of State agencies, electric utilities, environmental advocates, charging networks, and other members of the public and private sectors.
VTrans Electric Vehicle DC Fast Charging on Vermont Highway Corridors Report
This report analyzed the feasibility and costs for expansion of Vermont’s DC Fast Charging (DCFC) electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) network along Vermont highways. The DCFC are intended to be a highly visible resource to plug-in electric vehicle (EV) users on Vermont’s major routes that are available to residents and visitors.
This analysis included potential priority locations needed to close gaps in current fast charging availability; availability of 3-phase power required for DCFC, and costs to provide it; preferred types and cost of DCFC equipment; amenities and site conditions associated with preferred EV charging locations; and funding options and potential business models to support ongoing DCFC operations.
The study identifed six potential sites for adding or enhancing existing DCFC to close gaps and ensure nearly all of Vermont would fall within 30 miles of a DCFC. These sites were located in St Albans, Swanton, Derby, Randolph, White River Junction and Springfield.
VTrans Electric Vehicle Registration Fee Study
This was the third legislative study to consider fees for plug-in electric vehicles to contribute to highway infrastructure funding. This report’s final recommendations concur with the two previous legislative reports in finding EV registration fees should not be increased until the market for EVs moves beyond an “early adopter” phase.
The study found increasing fees would be at cross purposes with the state’s efforts to incentivize EV purchase and use, and increase the number of EVs on Vermont’s roadways. Transitioning from conventional gasoline powered to electric vehicles is essential for meeting the state’s short and long term climate and energy goals, and also reduces the public health problems caused by air pollution, keeps many more dollars in the Vermont economy, and reduces the costs of transportation for businesses and households
Recommended policies included:
- A first priority of putting a comprehensive transportation revenue solution in place as vehicle efficiency increases and people drive less due to economic pressures and opportunities, desired lifestyles, healthier transportation options, and environmental concerns. A stable revenue source that grows with the economy is needed.
- Second, if a comprehensive transportation revenue solution is not in place that addresses losses from overall increased vehicle efficiency, a fee should go into effect when the number of registered EVs represent 15% of auto sales.
Drive Electric Vermont 2016 Survey of Electric Vehicle Awareness and Interest
Drive Electric Vermont conducted a statistically valid survey of Vermonters to determine attitudes and knowledge of plug-in electric vehicles (EVs) in 2016. The survey results revealed most Vermonters were aware of EVs. Over a quarter of respondents reported they were likely to consider a plug-in vehicle for their next vehicle purchase. The most commonly cited barriers to EV purchase included vehicle cost and range. The study included comparisons with a similar survey conducted in 2014 to gauge changes in awareness and purchase consideration over time.
Vermont Zero Emission Vehicle Action Plan
On October 24, 2013, the Governor of Vermont signed a Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the governors of California, Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, Oregon, and Rhode Island to coordinate actions to ensure the successful implementation of state ZEV programs. This led to the creation of a multi-state ZEV Task Force which prepared a Multi-State ZEV Action Plan. This was designed to guide inter-state coordination and inform state-specific action to accomplish the goals of the ZEV MOU. The Vermont ZEV Action Plan built on the multi-state plan and includes strategies and actions to best address Vermont’s own needs to advance zero emission electric vehicles in the state.
Link to Plan and Vermont ZEV Resources
Regional Planning for Electric Vehicles
The Chittenden County Regional Planning Commission (CCRPC) has EV resources for communities working to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector and increase the energy efficiency of Vermont’s motor vehicle fleet.
SUMMARY: CCRPC recognizes electric vehicles are an important factor in realizing energy efficiency improvements and greenhouse gas reductions detailed in the 2013 Chittenden County ECOS Plan and the Chittenden County Climate Action Guide, as well as climate action plans across all levels of government. The Chittenden County Climate Action Guide prioritizes the promotion of electric vehicle infrastructure for electric vehicle charging as a key action to meeting greenhouse gas reduction targets established by the State legislature. Electric Vehicle (EV) technology supports these goals by providing low carbon, highly efficient and cost effective transportation. As such, CCRPC collaborated with Vermont Energy Investment Corporation (VEIC) to develop studies on future EV adoption and EV charging equipment locations, a how-to guide for installing EV charging equipment, and model bylaw language for streamlining permitting for new EV charging installations.
Planning for an electric vehicle infrastructure
Vermont Energy Investment Corporation identifies criteria for optimal locations for electric vehicle public charging, options for funding, and charging equipment for Chittenden County, Vermont.
SUMMARY: As electric vehicle sales continue to grow in Vermont, it is imperative that we begin to plan for widespread use of these vehicles and understand potential need for public charging facilities. Availability of away-from-home charging is one of the primary factors thought to affect consumers’ decisions regarding the purchase of an EV (along with vehicle price, vehicle range, and gasoline costs). In this report we consider needs for public vehicle charging in Chittenden County in the coming decade (2013-2023) as well as business models, optimal electric vehicle charging equipment (EVCE) location criteria in keeping with the ECOS planning goals and explore the different types of EVCE available.
Using US EIA projections of EV sales, we estimate that by 2023 approximately 5,800 EVs will be registered in Vermont, requiring 79 charging stations in Chittenden County. Cost estimates to install these charging stations varied from $553,000 to $1.66 million.We identify priority destination-types for public EVCE as those locations offering retail, recreation, and public administration services. These destinations commonly have dwell times long enough to allow an appreciable amount of charging. Future research may consider specific locations to serve as optimal sites for public EVCE in Chittenden County.
What's the most efficient way to charge electric vehicles?
Vermont Energy Investment Corporation presents data that shows level 2 electric vehicle charging to be consistently more efficient than level 1 charging.
SUMMARY: Uncontrolled EV charging may create the need for additional infrastructure and result in longer and higher peak demand. In order to meet this increased load without substantial expansion of generation capacity, it is critical that EV charging be performed as efficiently as possible.
Identifying opportunities for applying efficiency measures to EVs requires analysis of energy usage from the point it flows from the grid to its release in the wheels of the vehicle. This includes the following two primary processes:
- Charging: Storage of electrical energy in the EV battery system
- Driving: Transformation of electrical energy into motion
This study analyzes one aspect of EV charging: the differences between Level 1(120V) and Level 2(240V) charging efficiency.
How will electric vehicles affect Vermont's electric grid?
The University of Vermont Transportation Research Center has completed several research studies investigating how the electric grid may respond under widespread use of EVs in Vermont.
SUMMARY: In this study, funded by the US DOT and Vermont utilities, volunteer drivers will use the PHEV for their regular daily travel, and from these trips, data will be collected about carbon emissions, electricity use, local variations in the electrical supply, and performance over differing distances and driving styles. The research also includes an on-going effort to determine the capacity of Vermont's electric grid to handle 50,000, 100,000 or 200,000 plug-in hybrids.
Link to Phase I Report - February 2008