Electric Vehicles in Winter
We’re enthusiastic EV advocates here at Drive Electric Vermont, but it is important to understand how cold temperatures may reduce range to make an informed EV purchase. Below are some additional details to help you pick the right EV model for your needs, understand what options improve cold weather range, and best practices for charging and driving to get the most out of your EV investment.
Cold weather reduces efficiency of all vehicle types, not just EVs. According to FuelEconomy.gov, conventional gasoline vehicles typically have a 20% reduction in fuel economy at 20° F. However, it is often more noticeable with an EV and is especially concerning for all-electric vehicle drivers who may see up to 50% less range in the coldest Vermont conditions.
Keeping the inside of the vehicle warm in winter is usually the biggest drain on EV range, especially when ambient temperatures plunge below 15° F. Lithium ion batteries used in EVs also do not perform as well in cold temperatures, which can lead to further range reductions.
The team at fleet analytics company Geotab analyzed thousands of EVs in varying conditions and developed detailed data on expected EV range reductions in cold conditions. Their general findings are that at -4° F, drivers of an average EV might see about half of the manufacturer’s official range. However, this can vary significantly depending on the model, model options, and how it is stored and operated. Their online EV temperature tool allows users to check the potential cold weather performance of specific models. The chart below illustrates the average EV range reduction (or increase) relative to the manufacturer's official stated range across different temperatures.
Winter Range EV Purchase Considerations
Getting through the winter in your EV begins with purchasing the right vehicle for your needs. Most new all-electric models offer more than 200 miles of official range, so even with winter reductions many EV drivers are rarely inconvenienced by these issues. On the other hand, older used EV models may offer less than 100 miles of range which can present significant challenges if drivers aren’t aware of winter reductions when purchasing.
If you have a long commute or are a winter road tripper we recommend longer range all-electric models or plug-in hybrids that can run on gasoline for extended range. For long distance travelers wanting to go all-electric, Tesla’s proprietary fast charging network and navigation systems greatly simplify route planning. States and automakers are building out more non-Tesla fast charging along key routes, but Tesla has a significant lead in this effort.
We also highly recommend purchasing EVs equipped with cold weather options offered by many automakers, including heated seats and steering wheels. These are much more efficient than running cabin heating systems. Some EV models may also have battery heaters that help keep the battery pack at optimal temperatures. Several automakers offer more efficient heat pump heating systems that can significantly improve cabin heating efficiency down to about 15° F. The list below details model-specific cold weather options for many recent model year vehicles (by automaker in alphabetical order):
- Audi e-tron includes a heat pump as standard equipment, but also offers a cold weather package with heated rear seats and a higher-powered system for preheating while still plugged in. The Audi Q4 e-tron does not have a heat pump available in US models, although it is available as an option in Europe; the Q4 comes with heated front seats as standard equipment, but a heated steering wheel is optional equipment.
- BMW i4 and iX vehicles come with a heat pump system as standard equipment; heated seats and steering wheel are available as options. The BMW i3 (available used) has an optional heat pump on the all-electric model.
- Chevrolet Bolt and Bolt EUV use a resistance heating system - a heat pump option is not available. The base LT trim has an optional “Comfort and Convenience” package that includes heated front seats and steering wheel. The Premier trim includes heated steering wheel, front and rear seats as standard.
- Ford Mustang Mach-E and F-150 Lightning models do not have heat pump options. The Premium trim on the Mach-E includes heated front seats and steering wheel. The F-150 Lightning has standard heated front seats - heated side mirrors are included on the XLT trim and above, a heated steering wheel is available on the Lariat trim.
- Hyundai Ioniq 5 has a heat pump and battery heater on US models equipped with all-wheel drive for 2022 model year vehicles. For 2023, the Ioniq 5 includes the battery heater as standard equipment on all versions and a new battery preconditioning feature is enabled when a DC fast charger is set as the destination on the vehicle's navigation system. The older Ioniq Electric model (no longer available new) included a heat pump on the higher “Limited” trim level for the 2019 model year, but it was removed for the US market on the 2020 model year version; the base SE model does not have one. Hyundai Kona Electric vehicles do not offer a heat pump for USA models, although one does come as standard equipment in Canada; Kona Electric models have a battery heating system on model year 2020 and later vehicles on the Limited and Ultimate trims - this will improve power and DC fast charging speeds in very cold conditions.
- Jaguar I-Pace includes a heat pump as standard equipment. A cold weather package is also available with a heated windshield and steering wheel.
- Kia EV6 has standard heated front seats; a heat pump is included on EV6 models equipped with all-wheel drive. The EV6 also has a winter mode that can be activated to warm the battery pack which will improve DC fast charging speed in cold weather. The Niro EV includes a heat pump in the Cold Weather Package, which also includes a heated steering wheel and battery heater.
- Mini Cooper SE all-electric includes a heat pump as standard equipment on all models.
- The 2023 Nissan LEAF currently comes in S and SV Plus trims. The more efficient “hybrid heater system” and heated front seats / steering wheel are only available on the SV Plus trim.
- Polestar 2 includes heated front seats as standard equipment; the "Plus pack" option package includes a heat pump, heated steering wheel and heated rear seats.
- Subaru Crosstrek Hybrid plug-in hybrid includes a heat pump system according to the owner’s manual. The Solterra all-electric model has a heat pump as standard equipment. Heated front and rear seats and steering wheel are included on the Solterra Limited trim and above.
- Tesla Model Y is offered with a heat pump. The Tesla Model 3 was updated in October 2020 to include a similar system. Tesla Model S and X vehicles include heat pump systems starting with vehicles produced in 2021; older model years have heating systems that recover waste heat from electronics to improve efficiency.
- Toyota Prius Prime and RAV4 Prime plug-in hybrids and the bZ4X all-electric model come standard with heat pump systems. The bZ4X also includes heated front seats and steering wheel as optional on the base XLE package or standard on the Limited. The Limited trim also has optional features for a front seat lower body radiant heating system and rear heated seats.
- Volkswagen ID.4 does not have a heat pump on the US model (it is included in the Canadian version). The e-Golf included a heat pump on the higher SEL trim level. The baseline trim SE model did not have one.
- Volvo XC40 Recharge all-electric has a climate package option that includes a heated steering wheel and rear seats (front seat heaters are standard); there is a separate heat pump option. The Volvo C40 has a heat pump, heated seats and heated steering wheel included as standard equipment. Volvo PHEV models may not offer heat pumps. Dealers should have additional information on heating system options.
Models not included on this list are unlikely to offer heat pumps, but we recommend checking automaker/dealership resources to confirm.
Traction and Clearance
If you live in a snowbelt or regularly travel on rough roads you may want to consider an EV model with higher ground clearance and/or all-wheel drive. You can filter our vehicle comparison tool to show what’s currently available with all-wheel drive (either as standard equipment or as an optional upgrade). A growing number of EVs have all-wheel drive available, including models from Audi, BMW, Ford, Hyundai, Jaguar, Jeep, Kia, Lincoln, Mercedes-Benz, Mini, Mitsubishi, Polestar, Rivian, Subaru, Tesla, Toyota, Volkswagen, and Volvo. Many more options are due to arrive in the next few years.
Many EVs have front wheel drive, which is fine for most winter driving conditions in the northeast when accompanied by winter tires and modern traction control systems.
A few EV models have rear wheel drive (RWD) systems, which may be less predictable in winter road conditions. Many owners have reported traction control systems and winter tires make RWD acceptable in northeast conditions. We recommend researching specific models prior to a purchase to ensure they will work for your needs.
EV batteries are often placed along the underside of the vehicle – this extra weight helps keep your wheels on the road, especially if you have winter tires installed. Studies have shown winter tires are the single most important investment you can make for safe winter driving in any vehicle and EVs are no exception. Winter tires tend to be less efficient than all-season or summer tires, but in most cases they will not have a major impact on range.
Some vehicle models may recommend limiting use of regenerative braking systems in slippery conditions caused by snow and ice. The traction control or AWD systems may not work as effectively when regenerative braking is active. We recommend checking your vehicle owner's manual for further guidance.
Aerodynamic body parts help EVs maximize their range, but they do sometimes include trim pieces which reduce the ground clearance of the vehicle. Some EV models have adjustable suspension systems that allow drivers to increase ride height at the press of a button. Another option is putting in a “lift kit” that boosts the standard suspension further off the ground. If you regularly drive in deep snowy conditions you can inquire with your dealer/manufacturer as there may be other options to provide more clearance.
Charging in Winter
EVs can charge on Level 1 charging (plugging into a standard 120V home outlet), which typically takes overnight or longer to charge. Faster Level 2 (240V) charging is also available. Some EVs include DC fast charging capability which can provide an 80% charge in 30-60 minutes under normal conditions. All three types of charging may require more time in cold winter conditions, but this is especially true of DC fast charging.
If you have a garage or carport for your EV that will help keep the battery a bit warmer. Some EVs have battery heaters that turn on in the coldest temperatures (e.g. below 0° F) to prevent permanent battery damage, so it is often prudent to leave your EV plugged in overnight when "polar vortex" air visits your neighborhood – especially if your vehicle is parked outside. Check with your EV dealer or owner’s manual for more information on whether this is a consideration for your vehicle.
If you have an all-electric vehicle, upgrading to a level 2 charger will speed your charging and can also enhance your ability to preheat while plugged-in to preserve driving range.
For DC fast charging in winter, some EVs may have preconditioning systems that warm up the battery when you approach a fast charging stop. For example, if you are on a Tesla road trip including a stop at one of their Supercharger DC fast chargers be sure to use the built-in vehicle navigation system as it will automatically precondition the battery prior to a Supercharging session.
Driving Range Tips
Fortunately, there are some things EV drivers can do to restore some of the range lost in colder winter conditions. Best practices include:
- Preheating – getting the vehicle cabin up to temperature while still plugged in means more energy is left in the battery for range. This can usually be controlled with smartphone apps and/or key fobs and generally works best on higher powered Level 2 chargers. Preheating can also make it much easier to remove snow and ice from your vehicle before leaving home.
- Departure Time Scheduling - Many EV models will allow you to schedule a departure time that will finish a charging session just before you need to go. This is a great way to get the battery warmed up a bit from charging and ready to go. For some models it may also include preheating the cabin.
- Heated Surfaces – Using heated seats and/or steering wheels (if your vehicle has these) is usually much more efficient than operating the cabin heat, even if you have a heat pump installed. Some drivers will use a lap blanket or wear jackets and other well insulated clothing to avoid using the cabin heat on longer distance trips.
- Tire Pressure – Cold temps increase the density of air, which commonly leads to lower tire pressures. You can find the recommended tire pressure on a sticker located on the driver’s door jamb. Check pressure and add air regularly to increase winter efficiency.
- Driving Speed – reducing travel speed is one of the most effective ways to boost range in any condition as air resistance increases significantly with speed. Slowing down 5-10 mph can provide an additional 10-20% or more of range, depending on the model and conditions.
- Eco-Driving – Some vehicles have “eco” or economy modes that reduce power to the motors and do other things to increase efficiency. Also, following basic eco-driving principles (accelerating slowly, braking slowly, letting off on the accelerator as you crest a hill, and anticipating stoplights and slowing down) will help maximize the use of regenerative braking systems that put energy back in the battery instead of wasting it with mechanical brakes. You should also remove any heavy objects, roof racks, snow/ice, etc from the vehicle when possible to increase efficiency.
Most EV owners find these practices become second nature and they enjoy running their EVs year-round. That said, if you are in a single-car household and don’t relish the thought of more planning for road trips in winter you may be happier with a plug-in hybrid EV model that can run on gasoline when needed.
Automakers and battery designers are working on new battery chemistries and vehicle systems that promise more range and less impacts from colder temperatures, so hopefully these issues will diminish as these developments are integrated into future EVs.
US Dept of Energy - Maximizing Electric Cars' Range in Extreme Temperatures
Green Car Reports - Tesla Heat Pump Detailed
Green Car Reports - Driving Electric Cars in Winter: Tips from an Experienced Owner
FuelEconomy.gov - Tips for Hybrids, Plug-in Hybrids and Electric Vehicles
Tesla - Winter Driving Tips
Consumer Reports - How Temperature Affects Electric Vehicle Range
Green Car Reports - Cold weather affects EV range differently for each model
Alaska Center for Energy and Power - Cold Weather Issues for Electric Vehicles in Alaska