Reports & Resources

Electric vehicle (EV) research in Vermont is rapidly evolving to match the speed of vehicle and technology innovations. Several recent reports on EVs in Vermont are highlighted below, including information on EV interactions with utility infrastructure and how public entities can support increased public charging stations. Please contact us if you are aware of materials which should be added to this listing.

November 2017

VTrans Electric Vehicle DC Fast Charging on Vermont Highway Corridors Report

This report analyzed the feasibility and costs for expansion of Vermont’s DC Fast Charging (DCFC) electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) network along Vermont highways. The DCFC are intended to be a highly visible resource to plug-in electric vehicle (EV) users on Vermont’s major routes that are available to residents and visitors.

This analysis included potential priority locations needed to close gaps in current fast charging availability; availability of 3-phase power required for DCFC, and costs to provide it; preferred types and cost of DCFC equipment; amenities and site conditions associated with preferred EV charging locations; and funding options and potential business models to support ongoing DCFC operations.

The study identifed six potential sites for adding or enhancing existing DCFC to close gaps and ensure nearly all of Vermont would fall within 30 miles of a DCFC. These sites were located in St Albans, Swanton, Derby, Randolph, White River Junction and Springfield.

Link to Report 

Link to Report Attachments

December 2016

VTrans Electric Vehicle Registration Fee Study

This was the third legislative study to consider fees for plug-in electric vehicles to contribute to highway infrastructure funding. This report’s final recommendations concur with the two previous legislative reports in finding EV registration fees should not be increased until the market for EVs moves beyond an “early adopter” phase.

The study found increasing fees would be at cross purposes with the state’s efforts to incentivize EV purchase and use, and increase the number of EVs on Vermont’s roadways. Transitioning from conventional gasoline powered to electric vehicles is essential for meeting the state’s short and long term climate and energy goals, and also reduces the public health problems caused by air pollution, keeps many more dollars in the Vermont economy, and reduces the costs of transportation for businesses and households

Recommended policies included:

  1. A first priority of putting a comprehensive transportation revenue solution in place as vehicle efficiency increases and people drive less due to economic pressures and opportunities, desired lifestyles, healthier transportation options, and environmental concerns. A stable revenue source that grows with the economy is needed.
  2. Second, if a comprehensive transportation revenue solution is not in place that addresses losses from overall increased vehicle efficiency, a fee should go into effect when the number of registered EVs represent 15% of auto sales.

Link to Study

September 2016

Drive Electric Vermont 2016 Survey of Electric Vehicle Awareness and Interest

Drive Electric Vermont conducted a statistically valid survey of Vermonters to determine attitudes and knowledge of plug-in electric vehicles (EVs) in 2016. The survey results revealed most Vermonters were aware of EVs. Over a quarter of respondents reported they were likely to consider a plug-in vehicle for their next vehicle purchase. The most commonly cited barriers to EV purchase included vehicle cost and range. The study included comparisons with a similar survey conducted in 2014 to gauge changes in awareness and purchase consideration over time.

Link to Report 

September 2014

Vermont Zero Emission Vehicle Action Plan

On October 24, 2013, the Governor of Vermont signed a Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the governors of California, Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, Oregon, and Rhode Island to coordinate actions to ensure the successful implementation of state ZEV programs. This led to the creation of a multi-state ZEV Task Force which prepared a Multi-State ZEV Action Plan. This was designed to guide inter-state coordination and inform state-specific action to accomplish the goals of the ZEV MOU. The Vermont ZEV Action Plan built on the multi-state plan and includes strategies and actions to best address Vermont’s own needs to advance zero emission electric vehicles in the state.

Link to Plan and Vermont ZEV Resources

July 2014

Regional Planning for Electric Vehicles

The Chittenden County Regional Planning Commission (CCRPC) has EV resources for communities working to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector and increase the energy efficiency of Vermont’s motor vehicle fleet.

SUMMARY: CCRPC recognizes electric vehicles are an important factor in realizing energy efficiency improvements and greenhouse gas reductions detailed in the 2013 Chittenden County ECOS Plan and the Chittenden County Climate Action Guide, as well as climate action plans across all levels of government.  The Chittenden County Climate Action Guide prioritizes the promotion of electric vehicle infrastructure for electric vehicle charging as a key action to meeting greenhouse gas reduction targets established by the State legislature. Electric Vehicle (EV) technology supports these goals by providing low carbon, highly efficient and cost effective transportation.  As such, CCRPC collaborated with Vermont Energy Investment Corporation (VEIC) to develop studies on future EV adoption and EV charging equipment locations, a how-to guide for installing EV charging equipment, and model bylaw language for streamlining permitting for new EV charging installations.

Link to Resources

April 2013

Planning for an electric vehicle infrastructure

Vermont Energy Investment Corporation identifies criteria for optimal locations for electric vehicle public charging, options for funding, and charging equipment for Chittenden County, Vermont.

SUMMARY: As electric vehicle sales continue to grow in Vermont, it is imperative that we begin to plan for widespread use of these vehicles and understand potential need for public charging facilities. Availability of away-from-home charging is one of the primary factors thought to affect consumers’ decisions regarding the purchase of an EV (along with vehicle price, vehicle range, and gasoline costs). In this report we consider needs for public vehicle charging in Chittenden County in the coming decade (2013-2023) as well as business models, optimal electric vehicle charging equipment (EVCE) location criteria in keeping with the ECOS planning goals and explore the different types of EVCE available.

Using US EIA projections of EV sales, we estimate that by 2023 approximately 5,800 EVs will be registered in Vermont, requiring 79 charging stations in Chittenden County. Cost estimates to install these charging stations varied from $553,000 to $1.66 million.We identify priority destination-types for public EVCE as those locations offering retail, recreation, and public administration services. These destinations commonly have dwell times long enough to allow an appreciable amount of charging. Future research may consider specific locations to serve as optimal sites for public EVCE in Chittenden County.

Link to Report

March 2013

What's the most efficient way to charge electric vehicles?

Vermont Energy Investment Corporation presents data that shows level 2 electric vehicle charging to be consistently more efficient than level 1 charging.

SUMMARY: Uncontrolled EV charging may create the need for additional infrastructure and result in longer and higher peak demand. In order to meet this increased load without substantial expansion of generation capacity, it is critical that EV charging be performed as efficiently as possible. 

Identifying opportunities for applying efficiency measures to EVs requires analysis of energy usage from the point it flows from the grid to its release in the wheels of the vehicle. This includes the following two primary processes:

  • Charging: Storage of electrical energy in the EV battery system
  • Driving: Transformation of electrical energy into motion

This study analyzes one aspect of EV charging: the differences between Level 1(120V) and Level 2(240V) charging efficiency.

Link to Report

April 2010

How will electric vehicles affect Vermont's electric grid?

The University of Vermont Transportation Research Center has completed several research studies investigating how the electric grid may respond under widespread use of EVs in Vermont.

SUMMARY: In this study, funded by the US DOT and Vermont utilities, volunteer drivers will use the PHEV for their regular daily travel, and from these trips, data will be collected about carbon emissions, electricity use, local variations in the electrical supply, and performance over differing distances and driving styles. The research also includes an on-going effort to determine the capacity of Vermont's electric grid to handle 50,000, 100,000 or 200,000 plug-in hybrids.

Link to Phase I Report - February 2008

Link to Phase II Report - April 2010